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Exploring Database File Information with T-SQL


In the world of database management, having a clear understanding of the file information is crucial for optimizing performance and storage. In this technical blog post, we will dive into T-SQL and explore how to retrieve essential details about database files. We will use a T-SQL query to extract information such as file type, location, size, online status, and disk usage percentage. Let’s get started!

Retrieving Database File Information: To retrieve comprehensive file information, we can utilize the power of T-SQL and leverage system views and functions. Here’s the T-SQL query we’ll be working with:

-- Retrieve database file information
  GETDATE() AS CurrentDate, -- Current date and time
  @@SERVERNAME AS ServerName, -- Name of the server AS DatabaseName, -- Name of the database AS FileType, -- Type of the physical file
  f.physical_name AS FileLocation, -- Location of the physical file
  f.state_desc AS OnlineStatus, -- Online status of the file
  f.size * 8.00 * 1024.00 AS SizeInBytes, -- Size of the file in bytes
  CAST((f.size * 8.00 * 1024.00) / 1048576.00 AS NUMERIC(18,2)) AS SizeInMB, -- Size of the file in megabytes
  CAST((f.size * 8.00 * 1024.00) / 1073741824.00 AS NUMERIC(18,2)) AS SizeInGB, -- Size of the file in gigabytes
  CAST(CAST(v.total_bytes - v.available_bytes AS FLOAT) / CAST(v.total_bytes AS FLOAT) * 100 AS NUMERIC(18,2)) AS UsedDiskPercent -- Percentage of disk space used
  sys.master_files f
  INNER JOIN sys.databases d ON d.database_id = f.database_id
  CROSS APPLY sys.dm_os_volume_stats(f.database_id, f.file_id) v

Understanding the Query

Let’s break down the query to understand each component and its purpose:

  1. ServerName: Retrieves the name of the SQL Server instance.
  2. CurrentDate: Returns the current date and time when the query is executed.
  3. DatabaseName: Represents the name of the database.
  4. FileType: Provides the type of the physical file (e.g., data file, log file).
  5. FileLocation: Indicates the location of the physical file on disk.
  6. OnlineStatus: Displays the online status of the file (e.g., ONLINE, OFFLINE).
  7. SizeInBytes: Calculates the size of the file in bytes.
  8. SizeInMB: Converts the file size to megabytes.
  9. SizeInGB: Converts the file size to gigabytes.
  10. UsedDiskPercent: Computes the percentage of disk space used by the file.


In this blog post, we explored how to retrieve vital database file information using T-SQL. By leveraging system views and functions, we obtained details such as file type, location, size, online status, and disk usage percentage. Understanding this information is crucial for effectively managing and optimizing database performance. Armed with this knowledge, you can make informed decisions when it comes to storage and performance optimization in your SQL Server environment.